Data Sources: Canadian Community Health Survey 2000 & 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 & 2008, 2009 & 2010, 2011 & 2012, 2013 & 2014, Statistics Canada, Share File, Ontario Ministry of Health and LongTerm Care
Sample: Residents 19 years and over in the KFL&A area.
Released: April 2016
Introduction  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm.1 This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.


Type of drinker definitions:  
All indicators in the Alcohol use Facts & Figures are for the previous 12 months.
Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Occasional drinker: drank less than once per month in the previous 12 months. Everyday drinker: has at least one drink a day in the previous 12 months. Binge drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion in the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion are considered to have binge drank. Heavy drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion at least once a month during the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion at least once a month are considered to be heavy drinkers. Did not drink: did not have a drink in the previous 12 months. 

Type of drinker 

Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Occasional drinker: drank less than once per month in the previous 12 months. Did not drink: did not have a drink in the previous 12 months.


Regular drinkers  
Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months.
Figure C. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, KFL&A
Table C. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, KFL&A, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure CThere are no differences between male and female regular drinkers over time in KFL&A. There are also no trends by sex over time. 

Regular drinkers by sex  
Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Figure D. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, Ontario
Table D. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure DThere are more male regular drinkers than female regular drinkers. The percentage of male regular drinkers in 2013 & 2014 is lower than years 2003 through to 2009 & 2010 in Ontario. No trends are evident among female regular drinkers. 

Regular drinkers by age group  
Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Figure E. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
Table E. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure EIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, the age group 19 to 29 has the highest percentage of regular drinkers, 72.8% (62.6, 81.1), although there are no statistical differences between age groups. 

Regular drinkers by income group 

Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Figure F. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by income group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
Table F. Regular drinkers, adults, 19+, by income group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure FIn Ontario, the proportion of regular drinkers increases as income increases. The same trend exists for binge drinkers and heavy drinkers. The proportion of binge and heavy drinkers increases as income increases (data not shown). Notes on the income groupingsThe income variable was based on a derived income variable from the CCHS. This variable provided a distribution of respondents in deciles based on the adjusted ratio of their total household income to the low income cutoff corresponding to their household and community size. It provides, for each respondent, a relative measure of their household income to the household incomes of all other respondents. The income variables used in this report were determined as follows: the lowest 3 deciles of the derived variable from CCHS were categorized into 'Lower Income', the middle 4 deciles were categorized into 'Middle Income' and the highest 3 deciles were categorized into 'Higher Income'. 

Frequency of drinking by urban and rural status  
Regular drinker: had at least one drink a month in the previous 12 months. Everyday drinker: had at least one drink a day in the previous 12 months. Binge drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion in the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion are considered to have binge drank. Heavy drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion at least once a month during the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion at least once a month are considered to be heavy drinkers. Figure G. Adults, 19+, by frequency of drinking and urban and rural status, KFL&A, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table G. Adults (19+) by frequency of drinking and urban and rural status, KFL&A, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure GThere are no differences in types of drinkers by urban and rural status in KFL&A. Figure H. Adults, 19+, by frequency of drinking and urban and rural status, Ontario, 2013 & 2014
Table H. Adults, 19+, by frequency of drinking and urban/rural status, Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure HIn Ontario in 2013 & 2014, those living in rural environments have higher proportions of the population who are regular drinkers, everyday drinkers, binge drinkers and heavy drinkers than those living in urban environments. 

Everyday drinkers 

Everyday drinker: had at least one drink a day in the previous 12 months. Figure I. Adults (19+) who are everyday drinkers, KFL&A and Ontario
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table I. Everyday drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, KFL&A, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure IThere are no differences between KFL&A and Ontario and there no trends over time.
Figure J. Everyday drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, KFL&A
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table J. Everyday drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, KFL&A, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure JThere are no trends over time for male and female everyday drinkers. Generally, there are more male everyday drinkers than females, however, for KFL&A, due to smaller sample sizes, this difference is not always significant. The trend is evident in Ontario (See Figure J) Figure K. Everyday drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, Ontario
Table K. Everyday drinkers, adults, 19+, by sex, Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure KThere are no trends over time for male and female everyday drinkers. There are more male everyday drinkers than females. 

Binge drinkers 

Binge drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion in the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion are considered to have binge drank. Figure L. Frequency of binge drinking in adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table L. Frequency of binge drinking in adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure LIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 24.1% (20.3, 28.3) of adults binge drank less than once a month in the previous 12 months. More information on binge drinking can be found in Figures w to Z on Guideline 2 of the LRADGs. Guideline 2 of the LRADGs states: Reduce your risk of injury and harm by drinking no more than 3 drinks for women and 4 drinks for men on any single occasion. This is equivalent to binge drinking.
Figure M. Binge drinkers, adults, 19+, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table M. Binge drinkers, adults, 19+, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure MBinge drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion in the previous year. In KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, age group 19 to 29 has the highest percentage of binge drinkers, 75.2% (64.2, 83.6). 

Heavy drinkers 

Heavy drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion at least once a month during the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion at least once a month are considered to be heavy drinkers. Figure N. Heavy drinkers, adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table N. Heavy drinkers, adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure NThere are no trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers over time in KFL&A or Ontario. Figure O. Heavy drinkers, male adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table O. Heavy drinkers, male adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure OHeavy drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) on one occasion at least once a month during the previous year. There are no clear trends over time in the percentage of male heavy drinkers. However, there are about twice as many male heavy drinkers than female heavy drinkers (Figures O and P). 

Heavy drinkers by sex 

Heavy drinker: had 4+ (females) or 5+ (males) drinks on one occasion at least once a month during the previous 12 months. Please note that in our analysis for all years prior to 2013 & 2014 (due to data limitations) both men and women who have 5 or more drinks on any one occasion at least once a month are considered to be heavy drinkers.
Figure P. Heavy drinkers, female adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table P. Heavy drinkers, female adults, 19+, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure PThere are about twice as many male heavy drinkers than female heavy drinkers (Figures N and O). Please note that the increase in the percentage of female heavy drinkers in 2013 & 2013 is due to a difference in the data collection. Prior to 2013 & 2014, all respondents (both male and female) were asked if they ever consumed 5 or more drinks on one occasion. A change occurred in 2013 & 2014 where females were asked if they ever consumed 4 or more drinks on one occasion, to be consistent with the new Canadian LRADGs. Females are considered to have exceeded Guideline 2 of the LRADGs if they consumed 4 or more drinks on one occasion.
Figure Q. Heavy drinkers, adults, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table Q. Heavy drinkers, adults, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure QThe proportion of heavy drinkers aged 19 to 29 has remained fairly constant over the years. No trends over time are evident. Figure R. Heavy drinkers, adults, 19 to 29, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability. Table R. Heavy drinkers, adults, 19 to 29, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure RThe proportion of heavy drinkers aged 19 to 29 has remained fairly constant over the years. No trends over time are evident. 

Exceeding Guideline 1 of the LRADGs  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure S. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table S. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure SIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 24.6% (20.0, 29.8) of the population exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs. There were no trends in the proportion of those who exceeded Guideline 1 over time. 

Exceeding Guideline 1 of the LRADGs by sex  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure T. Male adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table T. Male adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure TIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 27.4% (20.8, 35.2) of the male population exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs. There were no trends in the proportion of males who exceeded Guideline 1 over time. Figure U. Female adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario*Use with caution due to high variability. Table U. Female adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability. Interpretation for Figure UIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 21.8% (16.4, 28.3) of the female population exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs. There were no trends in the proportion of males who exceeded Guideline 1 over time. 

Exceeding Guideline 1 of the LRADGs by age group  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure V. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014
*Use with caution due to high variability NR: not releasable due to small numbers. Table V. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 1 of the LRADGs, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability NR: not releasable due to small numbers. Interpretation for Figure VIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, age group 19 to 29 has the highest percentage of those who exceeded Guideline 2, 35.2*% (23.8, 48.5). *Use with caution due to high variability 

Exceeding Guideline 2 of the LRADGs  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure W. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table W. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guideline 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure WIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 44.5% (39.2, 50.0) of the population 19+ exceeded Guideline 2 of the LRADGs. There is a possible increasing trend over time. In Ontario in 2013 & 2014, there was a higher proportion of those who exceeded Guideline 2, 39.4% (38.6, 40.3), than all other years. 

Exceeding Guideline 2 of the LRADGs by sex  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.


Exceeding Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure AA. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table AA. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure AAIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 49.1% (43.2, 55.0) of the population 19+ exceeded Guidelines 1 and/or 2 of the LRADGs. There were no trends over time. 

Exceeding Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs by sex  
Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure BB. Male adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table BB. Male adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure BBIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 54.6% (46.3, 62.8) of the male population 19+ exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs. There were no trends over time.
Figure CC. Females adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 and/or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario
Table CC. Females adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 and/or 2 of the LRADGs, in KFL&A and Ontario, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Interpretation for Figure CCIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, 43.5% (37.6, 49.6) of the female population 19+ exceeded Guidelines 1 and/or 2 of the LRADGs. The increase in the percentage of females exceeding Guidelines 1 or 2 in 2013 & 2014 is a result of a change in the data collection for Guideline 2. Data collection for females exceeding Guideline 2 changed in the CCHS in 2013 & 2014. For this cycle, women exceeded Guideline 2 if they drank 4 or more drinks on any one occasion, as per the LRADGs. In the CCHS in years prior, women were counted as exceeding Guideline 2 if they drank 5 or more drinks on occasion. This explains the large increase we observe in 2013 & 2014 for females exceeding Guideline 2. 

Exceeding Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs by age group 

Canada's Low Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRADGs) were released Nov. 25, 2011, and help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and longterm alcoholrelated harm. This report presents information on the first two Guidelines of the LRADGs.
Figure DD. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014*Use with caution due to high variability Table DD. Adults, 19+, who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2 of the LRADGs, by age group, in KFL&A and Ontario, 2013 & 2014, % (95% Confidence Interval)
*Use with caution due to high variability Interpretation for Figure DDIn KFL&A in 2013 & 2014, age group 19 to 29 has the highest percentage of those who exceeded Guidelines 1 or 2, 78.0% (65.8, 86.8). The proportion of those exceeding Guidelines 1 or 2 decreases with increasing age. 

Confidence intervals explained 

Researchers look at the "confidence levels" of percentages being compared to decide if there is a statistically significant difference between percentages. A statistically significant difference means that:
In this report, 95% confidence intervals will accompany each percentage in all figures and tables. This interval represents the range in which we are 95% confident the true percentage will fall within. In tables, the 95% confidence intervals will be written with the percentage, followed by the 95% confidence interval range in brackets (e.g., 25% (12.3, 32.4)). In figures, the 95% confidence interval is represented by vertical bars in each bar line. 

References 

